No link found between psychedelics and psychosis!

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notsofasteddie
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No link found between psychedelics and psychosis!

Post by notsofasteddie » Fri 6th Mar 2015 01:30 am

No link found between psychedelics and psychosis


In large US survey, users of LSD and similar drugs were no more likely to have mental-health conditions than other respondents.
Zoe Cormier

04 March 2015

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Getty Images/MarkLyon

Anecdotal evidence of 'acid casualties' — people who develop chronic mental-health disorders following the use of psychedelic drugs — is not supported by data on large populations, researchers say.

Data from population surveys in the United States challenge public fears that psychedelic drugs such as LSD can lead to psychosis and other mental-health conditions and to increased risk of suicide, two studies have found1, 2.

In the first study, clinical psychologists Pål-Ørjan Johansen and Teri Suzanne Krebs, both at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, scoured data from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual random sample of the general population, and analysed answers from more than 135,000 people who took part in surveys from 2008 to 2011.

Of those, 14% described themselves as having used at any point in their lives any of the three ‘classic’ psychedelics: LSD, psilocybin (the active ingredient in so-called magic mushrooms) and mescaline (found in the peyote and San Pedro cacti). The researchers found that individuals in this group were not at increased risk of developing 11 indicators of mental-health problems such as schizophrenia, psychosis, depression, anxiety disorders and suicide attempts. Their paper appears in the March issue of the Journal of Psychopharmacology1.

The findings are likely to raise eyebrows. Fears that psychedelics can lead to psychosis date to the 1960s, with widespread reports of “acid casualties” in the mainstream news. But Krebs says that because psychotic disorders are relatively prevalent, affecting about one in 50 people, correlations can often be mistaken for causations. “Psychedelics are psychologically intense, and many people will blame anything that happens for the rest of their lives on a psychedelic experience.”

The three substances Johansen and Krebs looked at all act through the brain’s serotonin 2A receptor. The authors did not include ketamine, PCP, MDMA, fly agaric mushrooms, DMT or other drugs that fall broadly into the category of hallucinogens, because they act on other receptors and have different modes of biochemical action. Ketamine and PCP, for example, act on the NMDA receptor and are both known to be addictive and to cause severe physical harms, such as damage to the bladder3.

“Absolutely, people can become addicted to drugs like ketamine or PCP, and the effects can be very destructive. We restricted our study to the ‘classic psychedelics’ to clarify the findings,” says Johansen.

The 'acid casualty' myth

“This study assures us that there were not widespread ‘acid casualties’ in the 1960s,” says Charles Grob, a paediatric psychiatrist at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has long has advocated the therapeutic use of psychedelics, such as administering psilocybin to treat anxiety in terminal-stage cancer4. But he has concerns about Krebs and Johansen’s overall conclusions, he says, because individual cases of adverse effects use can and do occur.

For example, people may develop hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD), a ‘trip’ that never seems to end, involving incessant distortions in the visual field, shimmering lights and coloured dots. “I’ve seen a number of people with these symptoms following a psychedelic experience, and it can be a very serious condition,” says Grob.

Krebs and Johansen, however, point to studies that have found symptoms of HPPD in people who have never used psychedelics5.

The second of the new two studies, also published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology2, looked at 190,000 NSDUH respondents from 2008 to 2012. It also found that the classic psychedelics were not associated with adverse mental-health outcomes. In addition, it found that people who had used LSD and psilocybin had lower lifetime rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts.

“We are not claiming that no individuals have ever been harmed by psychedelics,” says author Matthew Johnson, an associate professor in the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. “Anecdotes about acid casualties can be very powerful — but these instances are rare,” he says. At the population level, he says, the data suggest that the harms of psychedelics “have been overstated”.


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Re: No link found between psychedelics and psychosis!

Post by notsofasteddie » Tue 10th Mar 2015 01:28 pm

Legal ban on LSD and magic mushrooms 'against human rights', say scientists

PSYCHEDELIC drugs like LSD and magic mushrooms should be made legal as banning them is "against human rights", scientists have said.

By Scott Campbell
Published: Fri, March 6, 2015

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GETTY IMAGES


Researchers say the drugs are much less harmful than alcohol, and banning them is a human rights issue because of their "spiritual" links.

The Norwegian researchers also claim there is no link between LSD and magic mushrooms and mental health problems.

They analysed information from more than 135,000 random people, including 19,000 who had used psychedelics, and found no association between the drugs and psychosis.

The study used data from the US National Health Survey and found there was no relationship with psychological distress, depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts.

A previous study by the same researchers also failed to tie up LSD and magic mushrooms, also known as psilocybin, with brain damage.

Clinical psychologist Dr Pal-Orjan Johansen, of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, said: "Over 30 million US adults have tried psychedelics and there just is not much evidence of health problems."

"Concerns have been raised the ban on use of psychedelics is a violation of the human rights to belief and spiritual practice, full development of the personality, and free time and play."

He believes it is time to end the 50-year ban on the hallucinogenic drugs which inspired the Beatles and other pop groups of the Sixties.

Image
The Beatles
PA

Psychedelic drugs are said to have inspired Sixties groups like The Beatles

His researcher Dr Teri Krebs added: "Drug experts consistently rank LSD and psilocybin mushrooms as much less harmful to the individual user and to society compared to alcohol and other controlled substances."

The researchers, whose findings are published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, pointed out that unlike alcohol, psychedelics are not addictive.

They found the use of psychedelic drugs is correlated with fewer mental health problems.

Dr Krebs said: "Many people report deeply meaningful experiences and lasting beneficial effects from using psychedelics."

But Dr Johansen admitted, given the design of the study, they cannot "exclude the possibility use of psychedelics might have a negative effect on mental health for some individuals or groups".

He said: "With these robust findings, it is difficult to see how prohibition of psychedelics can be justified as a public health measure."

Earlier this week British scientists claimed psychedelic drugs could prove to be highly effective treatments for depression and alcoholism after the first brain scans of people under the influence of LSD.

Early results from the trial, involving 20 people, are said to be "very promising" and add to existing evidence that psychoactive drugs could help reverse entrenched patterns of addictive or negative thinking.

Professor David Nutt, who led the study, warned patients are missing out on the potential benefits of such treatments due to prohibitive regulations on research into recreational drugs.

Speaking at a briefing in London, the government's former chief drugs adviser said the restrictions amounted to "the worst censorship in the history of science".


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madmaxxx
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Re: No link found between psychedelics and psychosis!

Post by madmaxxx » Fri 13th Mar 2015 09:03 am

these are all fun ect,till you have a bad trip,just rember a bad trip a living hell,me i know people that have been affected by too much lsd,it not a nice state to be in,becarefull too much of a good thing can be dangerous

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